Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale

Cover of: Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale |

Published by International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Radioactive waste disposal.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementInternational Atomic Energy Agency.
SeriesTechnical reports series -- no. 232, Technical reports series (International Atomic Energy Agency) -- no. 232.
ContributionsInternational Atomic Energy Agency.
The Physical Object
Pagination111 p. :
Number of Pages111
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL22100162M
ISBN 109201254830

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Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency ; [New York, N.Y.: exclusive sales agent in the United States of America, UNIPUB], (OCoLC) Material Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale book Government publication, International government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors.

Suggested Citation:"Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Hydraulically Fractured Shale." National Research Council. The Management of Radioactive Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Technical Review.

Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / ×. Buy Disposal of Radioactive Grouts into Hydraulically Fractured Shale by International Atomic Energy Agency from Waterstones today.

Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £Pages: main page. Disposal of Radioactive Grouts Into Hydraulically Fractured Shale. Posted onBy nabaf, By nabaf. Search. Disposal of Radioactive Grouts Into Hydraulically Fractured Shale.

27 Jun 「Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale」を図書館から検索。カーリルは複数の図書館からまとめて蔵書検索ができるサービスです。. Next Disposal of Radioactive Grouts Into Hydraulically Fractured Shale. kiva. Shale gas development relies heavily on multi-stage hydraulic fracturing lation to maximize commercial viability.

stimu Wells are hydraulically fractured by flushing large quantities of “frac fluid” a mixture of freshwater, – proppants, and small amounts of friction reducers and other chemicals into –.

1. Introduction. Unconventional shale gas exploration and hydraulic fracturing of geologic formations for oil and gas has boomed over the past decade, creating million new jobs (O'Neil et al., ), contributing billions to gross domestic production (GDP) (Institute for 21st Century Energy,O'Neil et al., ), yet generating numerous environmental concerns (Bibby et al., Kristopher L Kuhlman's 58 research works with citations and 7, reads, including: Deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste.

The exponential increase in fossil energy production from Devonian-age shale in the Northeastern United States has highlighted the management challenges for produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells. Confounding these challenges is a scant availability of critical water quality parameters for this wastewater.

Chemical analyses of flowback and produced water samples. In addition to the changes in the injection flow rate and fluid pressure, the production flow rates, Q pro, at PRP1-int3, PRP2-int2, and PRP1-int2 (Table 1) were 43%, and 38% less, and Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale book more.

This study examined water quality, naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM), major ions, trace metals, and well flow data for water used and produced from start-up to operation of an oil and gas producing hydraulically-fractured well (horizontal) in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin in northeastern Colorado.

Fluids trapped in the shale are remnants of ancient seawater. The salts in shale waters reached extreme concentrations over millions of years, and their chemical interactions with the surrounding rock can mobilize radionuclides.5, 6 Several studies indicate that, generally speaking, the saltier the water, the more radioactive it is.5, 7.

1 1 Introduction to Hydraulic Fracturing and Shale Gas Production Hydraulic fracturing is a key technique that has enabled the economic production of natural gas from shale deposits, or plays. The development of large-scale shale gas production is changing the U.S.

energy market, generating expanded interest in. U.S. Geological Survey FAQs:"Most of the water and additives used in hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) remain deep underground in the geologic formation from which the oil or gas is being extracted.

But some of the fluid, mixed with water or brine from the formation, returns through the well to the surface and is referred to as “produced water”. 1. Introduction [2] Organic‐rich shale formations have long been known to contain tremendous quantities of natural gas (hereafter “gas”), though the low porosity of shale matrices makes recovering this gas difficult.

Recent advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, which involve injecting large volumes of fluids at high pressure into shale formations to stimulate gas. Scientists have for the first time found dangerous levels of radioactivity and salinity at a shale gas waste disposal site that could contaminate drinking water.

into rock deep underground, a. Radioactivity associated with hydraulically fractured wells comes from two sources: naturally occurring radioactive material and radioactive tracers introduced into the wells.

Flowback from oil and gas wells is usually disposed of deep underground in Class II injection wells, but in Pennsylvania, much of the wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations is processed by public sewage. The water can be treated and used to frack more wells, sent out of state for disposal in injection wells, or in rare cases, treated and released into waterways, officials say.

The United States practiced direct injection of low-level liquid waste grouts under high pressure into a shale formation beneath the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site in the early s.

This process was abandoned due to uncertainties about how the grout flowed within the fractured shale. The actual practice of hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) is only a small part of the overall process of drilling, completing, and producing an oil and gas nmental issues that are specifically related to hydraulic fracturing include.

Summary. Fracability characterizes the ease of gas shale to form a complex-fracture network with hydraulic-fracturing treatments. Previous methods of fracability evaluation take into account some mechanical properties of gas shale, such as brittleness and fracture toughness. STORAGE OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN THE GROUND: HYDROGEOLOGIC AND HYDRO CHEMICAL FACTORS ABSTRACT Hydrogeologic cricaria presented by Cherry and others () are adopted as a guideline to define the hydrogeologic and hydrochaaicai data needs for the evaluation of the suitability of proposed or existing low-level radioactive waste burial sites.

Advances in hydraulic fracturing technologies, and unconventional oil and gas (UOG) generally, spurred a boom in energy production in the United States.

The rapid expansion of UOG has brought oil and gas production closer to homes, schools, and work places and thus increased potential human exposure to a range of chemicals, pollutants, and other health risks.

Most of the water and additives used in hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) remain deep underground in the geologic formation from which the oil or gas is being extracted. But some of the fluid, mixed with water or brine from the formation, returns through the well to the surface and is referred to as “produced water”.

After a well is brought on-line, large volumes of. The exponential increase in fossil energy prodn. from Devonian-age shale in the Northeastern US has highlighted the management challenges for produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells. Confounding these challenges is a scant availability of crit.

water quality parameters for this wastewater. @article{osti_, title = {Application of Phase-Field Techniques to Hydraulically- and Deformation-Induced Fracture.}, author = {Culp, David and Miller, Nathan and Schweizer, Laura}, abstractNote = {Phase-field techniques provide an alternative approach to fracture problems which mitigate some of the computational expense associated with tracking the crack interface and the coalescence of.

Waste disposal is an enduring public health problem. Throughout history, waste disposal has often resulted in environmental pollution and, consequently, harm to human health. 1 Waste disposal sites are often unequally distributed and located away from the individuals who receive most of the benefits associated with activities that generate the waste.

2–4 Nationwide, a disproportionate number. Between and in Pennsylvania, about Marcellus wells were drilled horizontally and hydraulically fractured for natural gas. During the flowback period after hydrofracturing, 2 to 4 × 10 3 m 3 (7 to 14 × 10 4 ft 3 ⁠) of brine returned to the surface from each horizontal Na-Ca-Cl brine also contains minor radioactive elements, organic compounds, and metals such as Ba.

Radioactive wastes from oil and gas drilling; Information from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Review of emerging resources: U.S.

shale gas and shale oil plays; Maps of coalbed methane, shale gas and tight sands (tight gas) (includes maps of Barnett, Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, Haynesville-Bossier, Marcellus and Woodford shale plays).

By year-endHess adopted the use of only two additives (a friction reducer and a surfactant), along with utilizing a more environmentally favorable version of the surfactant, for all new hydraulically fractured wells in North Dakota. We know that some stakeholders are concerned about the chemical composition of hydraulic fracturing fluid.

Sealed radioactive sources are routinely used in formation evaluation of both hydraulically fractured and non-fracked wells. The sources are lowered into the borehole as part of the well logging tools, and are removed from the borehole before any hydraulic fracturing takes place.

Measurement of formation density is made using a sealed caesium source. A minimum well depth can also be set to ensure adequate separation of the aquifer and the shale to be hydraulically fractured. Water Volumes used for Hydraulic Fracturing Concerns have been raised at the large quantities of water that are used in the process of hydraulic fracturing, particularly in areas such as the South East of.

The vast amount of waste water produced by fracking can contaminate rivers, lakes and other waterways with radioactive material and hormone-affecting chemicals, according to new research. Sincehydraulically fractured horizontal wells have accounted for the majority of new oil and natural gas wells developed in the United States, surpassing all other drilling techniques.

Moyer said he began transporting brine, the wastewater from gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured, for a small hauling company in August He trucked brine from wells to treatment plants and back to wells, and sometimes cleaned out the storage tanks used to hold wastewater on drilling sites.

a single or two grouts into one or several fissures at a pressure of 16 MPa. Therefore, it is an ideal test rig for fracture injection. The paper depicts all the components of the test rig, its performance and application of the results obtained from fracture grouting tests.

Examples are briefly described. INTRODUCTION. The assessment of this method has included the disposal of /sup /I, /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and tritium. It is recommended that additional studies be made of the feasibility of injecting krypton, as an admixture with xenon, directly into the hydrofracture grout stream for disposal in deep, impermeable shale formations.

Inroughly 60% of the wastewater from shale gas production in Pennsylvania was treated and discharged, 30% was recycled for fracking use, and 10% was injected into disposal wells (National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), In Fracking ' s Wake: New Rules are Needed to Protect Our Health and Environment from Contaminated Wastewate r, May.

Duke University scientists have documented high levels of two potentially hazardous contaminants, ammonium and iodide, in wastewater being discharged into area streams and rivers from oil and gas.The Frac Focus web site does not allow users to link to lists of chemicals published for individual well sites.

To view data on the Bakken Shale wells, go to FracFocus web site and Search: North Dakota. Dunn County. Marathon. Edward Darwin #H. Fracture Date: 7/14/; and Search: North Dakota.

Dunn County. ConocoPhillips. Intervale H.Energy: One cubic meter ( BBL) of water requires GJ ( million BTUs) of energy to r, the value of energy, known as ‘exergy’, depends on its temperature.

It may only make sense to spend this energy if a waste heat source or a low temperature heat source is available, such as waste heat from reciprocating engine jacket cooling, exhaust, or waste gas that is flared.

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